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Chemical Datasheet

AMMONIA, ANHYDROUS

2.2 - Non-flammable compressed gas Inhalation Hazard (Special Provision 13) (domestic) 2.3 - Poisonous gas 8 - Corrosive material
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service registry number. Unique identification number assigned to this chemical by the American Chemical Society.

UN/NA Number - The United Nations-North America number (also called UN number or DOT number). 4-digit number identifying an individual chemical or group of chemicals with similar characteristics. Required on shipping papers; often shown on placards or labels. This numbering system was developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, and then became the UN standard system for classifying hazardous materials.

DOT Hazard Label - U.S. Department of Transportation hazard warning label for the chemical (such as flammable liquid or corrosive). This label must be displayed on shipped packages, railroad tank cars, and tank trucks according to specifications described in 49 CFR 172.

CHRIS Code - 3-letter code used by the U.S. Coast Guard to identify individual chemicals included in its CHRIS (Chemical Hazards Response Information System) manual.

NFPA 704 - Text description of the diamond-shaped placard, which contains codes indicating the level of the chemical's health, flammability, and instability hazards, along with special hazards such as water- and air-reactivity. See a guide to the NFPA diamond.

General Description - Brief description of the chemical's general appearance, behavior, and hazardousness.

List of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label CHRIS Code
  • 7664-41-7   (AMMONIA)
  • Non-Flammable Gas (domestic)
  • Inhalation Hazard (Special Provision 13) (domestic)
  • Poison Gas (international)
  • Corrosive (international)
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
1
3 0
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 1 Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A clear colorless gas with a strong odor. Shipped as a liquid under its own vapor pressure. Density (liquid) 6 lb / gal. Contact with the unconfined liquid can cause frostbite. Gas generally regarded as nonflammable but does burn within certain vapor concentration limits and with strong ignition. Fire hazard increases in the presence of oil or other combustible materials. Although gas is lighter than air, vapors from a leak initially hug the ground. Prolonged exposure of containers to fire or heat may cause violent rupturing and rocketing. Long-term inhalation of low concentrations of the vapors or short-term inhalation of high concentrations has adverse health effects. Used as a fertilizer, as a refrigerant, and in the manufacture of other chemicals.

Rate of onset: Immediate

Persistence: Minutes

Odor threshold: 17 ppm

Source/use/other hazard: Explosives manufacture; pesticides; detergents industry.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts - Special alerts if the chemical is especially reactive (see list of reactivity alerts).

Air & Water Reactions - Special alerts if the chemical reacts with air, water, or moisture.

Fire Hazard - Description of the chemical's fire hazards (such as flammability, explosion risk, or byproducts that may evolve if the chemical is burned).

Health Hazard - Description of the chemical's health hazards (such as toxicity, flammability, or corrosivity).

Reactivity Profile - Description of the chemical's potential reactivity with other chemicals, air, and water. Also includes any other intrinsic reactive hazards (such as polymerizable or peroxidizable).

Reactive Groups - List of reactive groups that the chemical is assigned to, based on its known chemistry. Reactive groups are categories of chemicals that react in similar ways because their chemical structures are similar. Reactive groups are used to predict reactivity when you add a chemical to MyChemicals. Read more about reactive groups.

Potentially Incompatible Absorbents - Absorbents are products that can be used to soak up liquids from spills. However, some absorbents can react with particular chemicals (that is, they are incompatible), so caution should be used in selecting the correct absorbent for your situation. This section provides a list of potentially incompatible absorbents that have been known to react with liquids assigned to one or more of the reactive groups listed on this datasheet. Read more about absorbents, including situations to watch out for.

List of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water with evolution of heat. The amount of heat generated may be large.
Fire Hazard
Mixing of ammonia with several chemicals can cause severe fire hazards and/or explosions. Ammonia in container may explode in heat of fire. Incompatible with many materials including silver and gold salts, halogens, alkali metals, nitrogen trichloride, potassium chlorate, chromyl chloride, oxygen halides, acid vapors, azides, ethylene oxide, picric acid and many other chemicals. Mixing with other chemicals and water. Hazardous polymerization may not occur. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Vapors cause irritation of eyes and respiratory tract. Liquid will burn skin and eyes. Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with liquid may cause frostbite. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
AMMONIA is a base. Reacts exothermically with all acids. Violent reactions are possible. Readily combines with silver oxide or mercury to form compounds that explode on contact with halogens. When in contact with chlorates it forms explosive ammonium chlorate [Kirk-Othmer, 3rd ed., Vol. 2, 1978, p. 470]. Reacts violently or produces explosive products with fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine and some of the interhalogen compounds (bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride). Mixing of bleaching powder (hypochlorite solution) with ammonia solutions produces toxic/explosive ammonia trichloride vapors. Undergoes potentially violent or explosive reactions on contact with 1,2-dichloroethane (with liquid ammonia), boron halides, ethylene oxide (polymerization), perchlorates or strong oxidants (chromyl chloride, chromium trioxide, chromic acid, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorates, fluorine, nitrogen oxide, liquid oxygen). Reacts with silver chloride, silver oxide, silver nitrate or silver azide to form the explosive silver nitride. May react with some heavy metal compounds (mercury, gold(III) chloride) to produce materials that may explode when dry. [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1553].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation - Isolation and evacuation distance recommendations from the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG).

Firefighting - Response recommendations if the chemical is on fire (or near a fire).

Non-Fire Response - Response recommendations if the chemical isn't on fire (or near a fire).

Protective Clothing - Recommendations for protective gear.

Dupont Tychem® Suit Fabrics - A table of normalized breakthrough times for DuPont Tychem suit fabrics for the chemical, if available.

First Aid - Recommended first aid treatment for people exposed to the chemical.

List of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from GUIDE 125 [Gases - Corrosive]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: See ERG Tables 1 and 3 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 1005 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2012)
Firefighting
Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and full protective clothing.

Small fires: dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Large fires: water spray, fog or foam. Apply water gently to the surface. Do not get water inside container. Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Stay away from ends of tanks. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with water from the side until well after fire is out. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from GUIDE 125 [Gases - Corrosive]:

Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. (ERG, 2012)
Protective Clothing
For emergency situations, wear a positive pressure, pressure-demand, full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or pressure- demand supplied air respirator with escape SCBA and a fully-encapsulating, chemical resistant suit. (EPA, 1998)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QC = Tychem QC
SL = Tychem SL
TF = Tychem F
TP = Tychem ThermoPro
C3 = Tychem CPF 3
BR = Tychem BR
LV = Tychem LV
RC = Tychem Responder® CSM
TK = Tychem TK
RF = Tychem Reflector®
Testing Details
Permeation data obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QC SL TF TP C3 BR LV RC TK RF
Ammonia (gas) 7664-41-7 Vapor imm. 32 79 >480 12 46 46 46 >480 >480
Ammonia (liquid, < -35°C) 7664-41-7 Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480
Anhydrous ammonia (gas) 7664-41-7 Vapor imm. 32 79 >480 12 46 46 46 >480 >480
Anhydrous ammonia (liquid, < -35°C) 7664-41-7 Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm." indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2013)

First Aid
Warning: Ammonia is extremely corrosive to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Contact with the liquified gas may cause frostbite. Caution is advised.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Ammonia Exposure: Inhalation of ammonia may cause irritation and burns of the respiratory tract, laryngitis, dyspnea (shortness of breath), stridor (high-pitched respirations), and chest pain. Pulmonary edema and pneumonia may also result from inhalation. A pink frothy sputum, convulsions, and coma are often seen following exposure to high concentrations. When ammonia is ingested, nausea and vomiting may result; oral, esophageal, and stomach burns are common. If ammonia has contacted the eyes, irritation, pain, conjunctivitis (red, inflamed eyes), lacrimation (tearing), and corneal erosion may occur. Loss of vision is possible. Dermal exposure may result in severe burns and pain.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to ammonia may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to ammonia.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Transport to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to ammonia.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.Warning: Do not attempt to neutralize with an acid wash; excessive liberation of heat may result.
3. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must IMMEDIATELY be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
4. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
5. Wash exposed skin areas THOROUGHLY with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. Transport to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. DO NOT induce vomiting or attempt to neutralize!
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Activated charcoal does not strongly bind ammonia, and therefore is of little or no value.
5. Give the victims water or milk: children up to 1 year old, 125 mL (4 oz or 1/2 cup); children 1 to 12 years old, 200 mL (6 oz or 3/4 cup); adults, 250 mL (8 oz or 1 cup). Water or milk should be given only if victims are conscious and alert.
6. Transport to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

This section contains physical properties, flammability limits, and toxic thresholds for this chemical (see definitions of each property). More property data is available for common chemicals.

See also the Levels of Concern guide for information on AEGLs, ERPGs, PACs, and IDLH values.

List of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • H3N
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 16 % (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 25 % (EPA, 1998)
Autoignition Temperature: 1204 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -107.9 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 400 mm Hg at -49.72 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 0.6 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 0.6818 at -28.03 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: -28.03 ° F at 760.0 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 17.03 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: data unavailable
IDLH: 300 ppm (NIOSH, 2003)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Ammonia (7664-41-7)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 30 ppm 220 ppm 2700 ppm
30 minutes 30 ppm 220 ppm 1600 ppm
60 minutes 30 ppm 160 ppm 1100 ppm
4 hours 30 ppm 110 ppm 550 ppm
8 hours 30 ppm 110 ppm 390 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2013)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Ammonia (7664-41-7) 25 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 150 ppm 750 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2013)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Ammonia (7664-41-7) 30 ppm 160 ppm 1100 ppm LEL = 150000 ppm
(SCAPA, 2012)

Regulatory Information

This section contains regulatory information from the Title III Consolidated List of Lists (see details about each regulatory field).

List of data sources.
Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Ammonia 7664-41-7 500 100 100 313
Ammonia (anhydrous) 7664-41-7 500 100 100 X 10000
Ammonia (conc 20% or greater) 7664-41-7 1000 X 20000

(EPA List of Lists, 2012)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.