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Chemical Datasheet

SODIUM CYANIDE

6.1 - Poisonous materials
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service registry number. Unique identification number assigned to this chemical by the American Chemical Society.

UN/NA Number - The United Nations-North America number (also called UN number or DOT number). 4-digit number identifying an individual chemical or group of chemicals with similar characteristics. Required on shipping papers; often shown on placards or labels. This numbering system was developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, and then became the UN standard system for classifying hazardous materials.

DOT Hazard Label - U.S. Department of Transportation hazard warning label for the chemical (such as flammable liquid or corrosive). This label must be displayed on shipped packages, railroad tank cars, and tank trucks according to specifications described in 49 CFR 172.

CHRIS Code - 3-letter code used by the U.S. Coast Guard to identify individual chemicals included in its CHRIS (Chemical Hazards Response Information System) manual.

NFPA 704 - Text description of the diamond-shaped placard, which contains codes indicating the level of the chemical's health, flammability, and instability hazards, along with special hazards such as water- and air-reactivity. See a guide to the NFPA diamond.

General Description - Brief description of the chemical's general appearance, behavior, and hazardousness.

List of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label CHRIS Code
  • 143-33-9
  • Poison
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
3 0
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 0 Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A white crystalline solid, lump solid or powder. A deadly human poison by ingestion. Toxic by skin absorption through open wounds, by ingestion, and by inhalation of dust.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts - Special alerts if the chemical is especially reactive (see list of reactivity alerts).

Air & Water Reactions - Special alerts if the chemical reacts with air, water, or moisture.

Fire Hazard - Description of the chemical's fire hazards (such as flammability, explosion risk, or byproducts that may evolve if the chemical is burned).

Health Hazard - Description of the chemical's health hazards (such as toxicity, flammability, or corrosivity).

Reactivity Profile - Description of the chemical's potential reactivity with other chemicals, air, and water. Also includes any other intrinsic reactive hazards (such as polymerizable or peroxidizable).

Reactive Groups - List of reactive groups that the chemical is assigned to, based on its known chemistry. Reactive groups are categories of chemicals that react in similar ways because their chemical structures are similar. Reactive groups are used to predict reactivity when you add a chemical to MyChemicals. Read more about reactive groups.

Potentially Incompatible Absorbents - Absorbents are products that can be used to soak up liquids from spills. However, some absorbents can react with particular chemicals (that is, they are incompatible), so caution should be used in selecting the correct absorbent for your situation. This section provides a list of potentially incompatible absorbents that have been known to react with liquids assigned to one or more of the reactive groups listed on this datasheet. Read more about absorbents, including situations to watch out for.

List of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Deliquescent. Soluble in water. Slowly decomposed by water and very rapidly by acids to give off hydrogen cyanide, a flammable poison gas. Based on a scenario where the chemical is spilled into an excess of water (at least 5 fold excess of water), half of the maximum theoretical yield of Hydrogen Cyanide gas will be created in 12 minutes. Experimental details are in the following: "Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Distances for the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook", ANL/DIS-09-2, D.F. Brown, H.M. Hartmann, W.A. Freeman, and W.D. Haney, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, June 2009.
Fire Hazard
Sodium cyanide is not combustible itself, but contact with acids releases highly flammable hydrogen cyanide gas. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases. Container may explode in the heat of fire. Avoid strong oxidizers such as nitrates and chlorates; acids and acid salts. Avoid contact with acids. Aqueous solutions rapidly decompose. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Super toxic; probable oral lethal dose in humans is less than 5 mg/kg or a taste (less than 7 drops) for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. Sodium cyanide is poisonous and may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Contact with sodium cyanide may cause burns to skin and eyes. Individuals with chronic diseases of the kidneys, respiratory tract, skin, or thyroid are at greater risk of developing toxic cyanide effects. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
SODIUM CYANIDE produces deadly and flammable hydrogen cyanide gas pon contact with acids, even very weak acids , e.g., carbon dioxide dissolved in water (soda pop). Reacts violently with fluorine, magnesium, nitric acid, nitrates and nitrites [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 2958]. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation - Isolation and evacuation distance recommendations from the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG).

Firefighting - Response recommendations if the chemical is on fire (or near a fire).

Non-Fire Response - Response recommendations if the chemical isn't on fire (or near a fire).

Protective Clothing - Recommendations for protective gear.

Dupont Tychem® Suit Fabrics - A table of normalized breakthrough times for DuPont Tychem suit fabrics for the chemical, if available.

First Aid - Recommended first aid treatment for people exposed to the chemical.

List of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from GUIDE 157 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 1689 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2012)
Firefighting
Full protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus, rubber gloves, boots, and bands around legs, arms, and waist should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used.

Fight fire from maximum distance. Move container from area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal. Do not scatter the material.

Use water. Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, or foam for small fires, water spray, fog, or foam for large fires. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from GUIDE 157 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas.

SMALL SPILL: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal. (ERG, 2012)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premise.

Provide: Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2003)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QC = Tychem QC
SL = Tychem SL
TF = Tychem F
TP = Tychem ThermoPro
C3 = Tychem CPF 3
BR = Tychem BR
LV = Tychem LV
RC = Tychem Responder® CSM
TK = Tychem TK
RF = Tychem Reflector®
Testing Details
Permeation data obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QC SL TF TP C3 BR LV RC TK RF
Sodium cyanide (45%) 143-33-9 Liquid >480 >480
Sodium cyanide (sat. sol. in water) 143-33-9 Liquid >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2013)

First Aid
Warning: Heart palpitations may occur within minutes after exposure. Caution is advised. Effects may be delayed.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Sodium Cyanide Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to sodium cyanide may include hypertension (high blood pressure) and tachycardia (rapid heart rate), followed by hypotension (low blood pressure) and bradycardia (slow heart rate). Cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac abnormalities are common. Cyanosis (blue tint to the skin and mucous membranes) and cherry-red or bloody mucous membranes may occur. Tachypnea (rapid respiratory rate) may be followed by respiratory depression. Pulmonary edema and lung hemorrhage may also occur. Headache, vertigo (dizziness), agitation, and giddiness may be followed by combative behavior, dilated and unreactive pupils, convulsions, paralysis, and coma. Sodium cyanide is irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Lacrimation (tearing) and a burning sensation of the mouth and throat are common. Increased salivation, nausea, and vomiting are often seen.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to sodium cyanide may require decontamination and life support for the victims. All exposed persons should be transported to a health care facility as quickly as possible. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to sodium cyanide.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen to all victims. Monitor victims for respiratory distress.Warning: To prevent self-poisoning, avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing; use a forced-oxygen mask. Direct oral contact with sodium cyanide-contaminated persons or their gastric contents may result in self-poisoning.
3. RUSH to a health care facility!
4. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to sodium cyanide.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen to all victims. Monitor victims for respiratory distress.Warning: To prevent self-poisoning, avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing; use a forced-oxygen mask. Direct oral contact with sodium cyanide-contaminated persons or their gastric contents may result in self-poisoning.
3. RUSH to a health care facility!
4. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
5. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
6. Wash exposed skin areas twice with soap and water.
7. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen to all victims. Monitor victims for respiratory distress.Warning: To prevent self-poisoning, avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing; use a forced-oxygen mask. Direct oral contact with sodium cyanide-contaminated persons or their gastric contents may result in self-poisoning.
2. RUSH to a health care facility!
3. DO NOT induce vomiting. Ipecac is not recommended for ingestion of sodium cyanide.
4. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
5. Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
6. Promote excretion by administering a saline cathartic or sorbitol to conscious and alert victims. Children require 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) of cathartic; 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) is recommended for adults. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

This section contains physical properties, flammability limits, and toxic thresholds for this chemical (see definitions of each property). More property data is available for common chemicals.

See also the Levels of Concern guide for information on AEGLs, ERPGs, PACs, and IDLH values.

List of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • CNNa
Flash Point: Not combustible (EPA, 1998)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 1047 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 1 mm Hg at 1502.6 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: 1.6 at 77.0 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 2725 ° F at 760.0 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 49.01 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: greater than or equal to 100 mg/mL at 68° F (NTP, 1992)
IDLH: 25 mg/m3 (as CN) (NIOSH, 2003)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Interim AEGLs for Sodium cyanide (143-33-9)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 5 mg/m3 34 mg/m3 54 mg/m3
30 minutes 5 mg/m3 20 mg/m3 42 mg/m3
60 minutes 4 mg/m3 14 mg/m3 30 mg/m3
4 hours 2.6 mg/m3 7 mg/m3 17 mg/m3
8 hours 2 mg/m3 5 mg/m3 13 mg/m3
(NAC/NRC, 2013)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Sodium cyanide (143-33-9) 4 mg/m3 14 mg/m3 30 mg/m3
(SCAPA, 2012)

Regulatory Information

This section contains regulatory information from the Title III Consolidated List of Lists (see details about each regulatory field).

List of data sources.
Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Cyanide Compounds N106 & 313
Sodium cyanide (Na(CN)) 143-33-9 100 10 10 313c P106

(EPA List of Lists, 2012)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.